Friday, September 19, 2014

Beans as a important high calorie store-able food high in protein.

Number three on my high calorie must grow foods is dry beans.
I thought this would be an easy subject because this stable crop is grown around the world. However, there are many types of beans grown under different conditions. They tend to be either bush types or vining types. Being a member of the legume family they work with bacteria to take nitrogen from the air. This makes them an important rotation crop for increasing nitrogen in the soil. They are also an extremely important source of vegetable protein in diets around the world. On the negative beans contain anti-nutrients that require sprouting, fermenting, or proper cooking to break down.

I will limit beans to
1.      Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) - Small, dark red beans of Japanese origin. Highly valued for their protein content.
2.      Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) - Sometimes called turtle bean or turtle soup bean, the black bean is very popular in Caribbean and Latin American recipies. Beans are small and a very dark, shiny black.
3.      Southern peas or cow peas (Vigna unguiculata) - Also called black-eyed pea, this warm-region bean is a favorite of many and related to the asparagus bean, but is grown for its seed rather than its pod. They are round, off-white beans marked with black. This bean grows best in Zones 7 or warmer.
4.      The “yard-long bean” or asparagus bean is a close relative of the southern pea and produces pods up to 3 feet long. The plants are vining and need support. The pods are tender when young and frequently used as snaps. For this use, harvest them when the pods are partially developed and before seed enlargement shows. For shelling, harvest them when the seeds are full sized but still immature. They may also be shelled when fully mature.
5.      Garbanzo Bean (Cicer arietinum) - Also called chickpea, this bean is large, round, and buff-colored and is native to southern Europe and India where it is eaten boiled or roasted, or used in hummus. This bean needs a long growing season of 120 days or more.
6.      Hyacinth Bean (Dolichos lablab) - This is a fast growing, vining plant that is grown for both its pods and its seeds. It is a perennial in warm climates, but can also be grown in cooler areas as an annual. Its flowers look like wisteria and are quite ornamental, the seeds can be dried and eaten like beans.
7.      Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) - A large dried bean with the characterisitc kidney shape. Not always dark red. They also come in white, brown, yellow, black and mottled.
8.      Navy Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) - A smaller kidney bean, a white bean that is popular in short-season areas.
9.      Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) - The seeds are often sprouted for use as bean sprouts, but are also edible as dry beans. The pods can also be eaten when young and immature.
10.   Pinto Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) - The pinto bean is an oval, medium-sized bean, usually mottled on a beige background. It has good heat and drought resistance making it a favorite in arid, dry areas. It's the bean normally used in Mexican cooking. They can be used either fresh or dried.
11.   Soybean (US) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) which is a species of legume native to East Asia.

There are two things I would like you to consider.
A) It takes anywhere from ten to twenty days for many beans to sprout in the garden. Germination is poor when soil temperature is below 60 F and is the soil is wet and cool beans can rot in the ground. So you may wish to consider starting beans indoors and transplanting when conditions are good.
B) Bean needs good air circulations when conditions are hot and humid. If the temperature is above 80 F and water sets on leaves for a couple of hours you have the perfect conditions for disease. So you may wish to use netting, wire, and trellises that allow for airflow and sunlight. I see a lot of clever designs like teepees, arches, etc. But this can hide beans and provide poor ventilation if you have massive foliage. So allow the support to have room to breathe and get light.

Here is some good information on growing beans.

DRY EDIBLE BEANS, Published by the Jefferson Institute
Home Gardening Series Beans, University of Arkansas
Growing Beans in the Home Vegetable Garden
How to Grow Black Beans
How to Grow Cowpeas | Guide to Growing Cowpeas
How to Grow Red Kidney Beans | Guide to Growing Red Kidney Beans

How to Grow Navy Beans | Guide to Growing Navy Beans
The Best Conditions for Mung Bean Growth
How to Grow Pinto Beans | Guide to Growing Pinto Beans
How to transplant Green Beans from the Burpee Greenhouse to a pot

Here are some good sources of bean seeds.

Vermont Bean Company
Seed Savers

Good information on storing your bean harvest.

Consider drying, fermenting as in Miso, and freezing.

Traditional Miso making, video
How to make easiest natto(Method to use the Natto bacteria), video
How to make miso paste, video

Fermenting Beans And Legumes


Some of the many uses of  beans.

Everything from killing bedbugs to providing fodder.

sprouted cowpeas as a source of protein and vitamins
Cowpeas - A New Forage Crop for South Dakota?
Cover crops in the home garden, soybean used as cover crop
Legume Species as Leaf Vegetables
Before you start read the lot as it refers to ways of removing toxicity in some plants!

It is important to properly cook beans.

Many beans can contain toxic or negative nutrients. So you have to know how to prepare them if you intend to get the most out of them.

Bean Central, how to cook beans
Antinutrients: What They Are & How to Cook Them Away
Preparing Grains, Nuts, Seeds and Beans for Maximum Nutrition
Lima bean or Butter Bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Raw beans contain dangerous amounts of linamarin, a cyanogenic glucoside.
Raw Kidney Beans illness
Sprouting beans
How to Sanitize Seeds Before Sprouting & Planting

Disease affecting beans

Integrated management approaches to nematodes associated with common beans
Curing of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium From Contaminated Cowpea Seeds and Sprouts with Vinegar and Chlorination

Useful tools and ideas for growing beans.

Manual RRM-1 seedling planter, video made in Ukraine

Japaneese paper pot transplanter


Easy Jab Planter

Transplanting Broccoli with the "Hatfield Transplanter"

Johnny's transplanter
Healing Hearts Farm: Tomato Planting
Hatfield Transplanter Model 2.5

PLANTING ONION starts, PVC seed planter

Fast and easy Jab Planter for planting garden seeds

Almaco Hand Held Planters-Standard

Hand-Held Tree Planter, can be used in hard rocky grownd

New type of jab planter for corn and beans

Simple Seeder


Jang Seeders - Model JP-1 1 Row Hand Seeder

Push Seeder, Penn State Extension Start Farming

Hoss seeder

Jang TD-1 Planter ~ Precision Planting for Larger Seeds Like Corn, Peas, Beans & Pumpkins

Using Horticultural Netting (aka Crop Netting) to Trellis Pole Beans

Supports for Climbing Beans and Peas

Garden Trellis Ideas

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